WP22 Identifiers and citability: amending the DoW

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Start month End month WP leader
4 48 FRD


The persistent identification of digital, and human, resources is a crucial issue for the whole information society. Location, discoverability and citability of resources (ranging from raw data to datasets to publications etc.) and people depend on Persistent Identifiers (PI). Some notable experiences have emerged in different domains, like URN in use by research institutes and libraries (NBN) or DOI in use by publishers and libraries, but some weak points still remain:

  • some institutions have not yet implemented a standard identifier system
  • a global unique technology cannot be expected/imposed
  • a unique access point to a joint cross-domain service is missing
  • added value services tailored on different user communities are still inadequate

Moreover the user communities have different visions and approaches to PI concepts, different objects, granularity of what an identifier must refer to, different legal and cost models.

Some experience with semantic web approaches have arisen and sound promising but adoption by user communities is still not very wide and mature.

For the identification of people, the ORCID [12] initiative aims to provide unique identifiers for researchers linkable to an individual's research output, to enhance the scientific discovery process and improve the efficiency of funding and collaboration. On this topic new iniatives are emerging, like the ISNI or national projects, so it becomes strategic to combine together the two trends with PI for objects and actors in orer to maximise the impact for final users.

To overcome these weaknesses, this WP aims to:

  • provide an overview of the current PI systems and criteria for evaluation
  • design a reference model to describe an interoperability framework and provide an integrated entry point
  • correlate PI systems for objects and actors
  • define community-driven added value services cross-sectorial both among PI domains for objects and among PI domains for actors

Description of work and role of partners

Task 2210 : Survey and benchmarking (M2-M5) (Lead UT)

Existing PI solutions present a fragmentary landscape because each of them addresses only a particular set of domain requirements. This task aims to defining a complete state of art of the available identifier systems adopted by different user communities.

The initial study will include an analysis of user requirements, use cases and scenarios, to help to outline a set of criteria in terms of organisational framework, object management, infrastructure and security. The final objective is to provide a benchmarking model, with criteria for evaluation, to support user communities and institutions in the identification of the appropriate PI system.

Task 2220: Identifier evaluation and integration into an Interoperability Framework and Reference Model (IFRM) (M5-M12) (Lead FRD)

The various identifier systems will be evaluated against the requirements. It is likely that no one system will satisfy all requirements. Therefore in order to create the conditions for an effective interoperability between credible PI systems, we believe it is necessary to define an Interoperability Framework which takes into account both organisational and technical issues. This task will take advantage of work ongoing in partners, and intends to provide a Reference Model that addresses functions, roles and responsibilities to implement a dynamic interoperability of heterogeneous PI systems checked by user communities against the benchmarks developed in Task 2210. Moreover the IFRM will be tested through a proof of concept, for example as a root name resolver.

Task 2230: Citability advanced services (M8-M32) (Lead FRD)

Due to the unprecedented growth of electronic resource (e-resource) availability, one of the questions currently being explored is: "how often are e-resources being cited in my research community?" The IFRM would allow the citability of cross-domain stable resources and consequently to build a number of services tailored on specific community requirements. The pervasiveness of the adopted services is in fact one of the key factors for an extensive consensus building and for the long term sustainability of the service itself.

In particular, by addressing the citability issues, it is possible to design advanced services for resources identified by different PI systems, such as:

  • bibliometric statistics to quantify original research and reviews;
  • cross citations allowing the user to move from one article to another at the citation level, regardless of journal or publisher;
  • a European register of certified resources for an automatic citation indexing system.
  • the ORCID initiative aims to provide unique identifiers for researchers linkable to an individual's research output

Regarding PI for actors the scenario will benefit of emerging initiatives like the ORCID or ISNI aiming to provide unique identifiers for researchers linkable to an individual's research output. Correlation of PI systems for objects with PI systems for actors will increase enormously the potential spectrum of services can be develop on the common base offered by the IF implementation.

The plan for the Year 2 and Year 3 is to start implementation of a demonstrator of the Interoperability Framework (IF) for PI systems both for objects and for actors. The plan can be divided in three steps.

i. Validation – Validation of the model through a user group with experts on PI; duration of the validation a couple of months; number of experts around 40; on-line working modalities and tools. ii. Demonstrator – Definition and set up of a demonstrator with selected resources from the APARSEN community, it‘s important to have data from different PI domains and for objects, people and bodies; definition of the publication modality and tools development in support of publication of data; population of the demonstrator with data; before end Nov 2012. iii. Services – Proposal of few services and development on a cross PI Domains (PIDs) basis using all the data available in the demonstrator; some basic services implemented before Jan 2013.

Some 'common policies' across many WPs are envisaged, like the use, development and promotion of the Glossary common to all the WPs in order to reinforce coordination among WPs, to increase the quality of the project publications and to outreach other user communities. Another relevant 'common policy' will take care of the long term preservation of the project publications with some repositories identification, WP22 will contribute as convenient to the PI policy definition. Furthermore, WP22 will develop cooperation with other WPs of the stream 2, in particular with WP25 for its specific competence about 'interoperability‘. WP25 will benefit from the IF implementation to build and test a set of interoperability services.

An important part of the embedding this work as part of the VCoE will be to create collaborations with DOI foundation and DataCite, Handle community, NBN national centres, PersID project, EPIC and KE consortia, as well as with the PI systems for people and authors like ORCID and ISNI and VIAF in order to enrich the scenario of persistent identification in the digital world.

Particular attention will be devoted to experiences like Europeana, PersID [www.PersID.org] aiming to implement some first pilot services and ORCID.

These services are addressed to all the different communities but it is envisaged to identify new prospective services oriented to cluster communities at national or international level.

A series of success indicators will be identified to evaluate the pervasiveness of the proposed services

Very large databases and subsets of results that are dynamically generated by experiments require a model for data citation that scales well. The model will use existing persistent identifier models and enable data citation potentially across several databases. The model will be based on assigning persistent identifiers to queries selecting the subsets of data used for an experiment setting, ensuring both result set identity as well as result list (sorting identity) across several and potentially migrated databases. This approach will be tested via case-studies in cooperation with some APARSEN partners and other DP projects with eScience data in the engineering and sensor networks domain, as well as via a set of bilateral/individual case studies with researchers in different communities.

List of deliverables

  • D22.1 PI system framework (M12)
  • D22.2 Set of added value services and evaluation of user satisfaction (M36)
  • D22.3 Demonstrator refinement and user community engagement and satisfaction assessment (M48)

Description of deliverables

D22.1) PI system framework: This deliverable provides a Reference Model that addresses functions, roles and responsibilities needed to make heterogeneous PI systems interoperable. [month 12]

D22.2) Set of added value services and evaluation of user satisfaction: The first part of this deliverable aims at describing a set of advanced services that can be developed within the Reference Model. [month 24]. The second part release of the deliverable will report about the practical implementation of the demonstrator, some selected added value services and the early results of the cooperation with other EU and Internationale initiatives in the field. [month 36].

D22.3) The Final DE reports the results of the user-driven demonstrator refinement, user community engagement and satisfaction assessment, and the results of other EU initiatives in the fields [month 48].

Further revisions in response to feedback from Project Officer 12th/14th December

-- SimonLambert - 2012-10-16

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Topic revision: r7 - 2013-03-01 - EmanueleBellini
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